Global Jerusalem

Project Overview: 

Historically, the city of Jerusalem has constituted the primary physical and conceptual interface of the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.  The landscape, art, and architecture of the city, and related pilgrimage practices, commemorated shared histories extending back to the origins of both religions and forward to the future events associated with the End of Time.  Most fundamentally, the city was and continues to be perceived as a site of convergence between heaven and earth by Jews, Christians, and Muslims across the globe.  This belief has shaped the development of interrelated artistic and pilgrimage traditions centered on the idea of Jerusalem.  The city has and continues to attract a remarkable diversity of people from across the world in times of both peace and war.  For those who never journeyed to the city, the idea of Jerusalem motivated the creation of art and books that facilitated an imaginary experience of the city’s past, present, and future.  Since the Middle Ages, technologies of representation, from writing (pilgrimage accounts) to hand-made pictures, printing, and photography, have mediated and virtualized the experience of Jerusalem for communities of the faithful across Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.  Contemporary representations of the city in cyberspace, including virtual reconstructions, digital archaeology, and digitized books, are in various ways rooted in this long history.  The contemporary concept of virtual pilgrimage particularly has its foundations in the textual, pictorial, and architectural cultures of the medieval period.  This project will bring together existing digital resources relating to the historical and contemporary experiences of Jerusalem in cyberspace.  This includes the remediation of medieval materials, like texts recounting the experiences of Jewish, Christian, or Muslim pilgrims and crusaders who made real or imagined journeys to Jerusalem, digitized illustrated manuscripts and printed books, architectural renderings and photographs, and virtualized pilgrimages / tours of Jerusalem and its environs.

Project Team: 

Kathryn Blair Moore, University of Connecticut, Project Director

Tom Scheinfeldt, University of Connecticut, Director of Greenhouse Studios

Kathryn Krochescki, University of Connecticut, Researcher

Brooke Foti Gemmell, University of Connecticut, Greenhouse Studios, Design Technologist

Cara Tracey, University of Connecticut, Greenhouse Studios, Website Designer


Anderson, Benjamin. Cosmos and Community in Early Medieval Art. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017.

Boehm, Barbara D., et al. Jerusalem, 1000-1400: Every People Under Heaven. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016. 

Bogdanović, Jelena. The Framing of Sacred Space: The Canopy and the Byzantine Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Cohen-Hattab, Kobi, and Noam Shoval. Tourism, Religion, and Pilgrimage in Jerusalem.  New York: Routledge, 2015.

Folda, Jaroslav. The Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, 1098-1187. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Gelfand, Laura.  “Illusionism and Interactivity: Medieval Installation Art, Architecture, and Devotional Response.”  Push Me, Pull You:  Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, ed. Sarah Blick and Laura Gelfand.  Leiden: Brill, 2011. 87-116. 

Galor, Katharina. Finding Jerusalem: Archaeology between Science and Ideology. Oakland, California: University of California Press, 2017.

Galor, Katharina. Archaeology of Jerusalem. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Grabar, Oleg, Mohammad Al-Asad, Abeer Audeh, and Saïd Nuseibeh. The Shape of the Holy: Early Islamic Jerusalem. Princeton: Princeton University, 1996.

Grabar, Oleg, and B Z. Ḳedar, eds. Where Heaven and Earth Meet: Jerusalem's Sacred Esplanade. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.

Hayden, Judy A, and N I. Matar. Through the Eyes of the Beholder: The Holy Land, 1517-1713. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

Heng, Geraldine.  The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Hillenbrand, Carole. The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 2000. 

Howard, Deborah. Venice and the East.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Kühnel, Bianca, Galit Noga-Banai, and Hanna Vorholt. Visual Constructs of Jerusalem. Turnhout: Brepols, 2014.

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Necipoğlu, Gülru. The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire, 1539-1588. London: Reaktion, 2005.

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Olds, Katrina B. Forging the Past: Invented Histories in Counter-Reformation Spain. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

Peters, F E, and F E. Peters. Jerusalem: The Holy City in the Eyes of Chroniclers, Pilgrims and Prophets from the Days of Abraham to the Beginnings of Modern Times. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Pinson, Stephen C. Monumental Journey: The Daguerreotypes of Girault De Prangey. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2019. 

Rowan, Yorke M. “Repackaging the Pilgrimage:  Visiting the Holy Land in Orlando,” from Marketing Heritage:  Archaeology and the Consumption of the Past, ed. Y.M. Rowan and U. Baram. Walnut Creek, CA, 2004.

Rubin, Rehav. Image and Reality: Jerusalem in Maps and Views. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Magnes Press, 1999.

Trotter, Jonathan R. The Jerusalem Temple in Diaspora: Jewish Practice and Thought During the Second Temple Period. Leiden: Brill, 2019. 

Wescoat, Bonna D, and Robert G. Ousterhout. Architecture of the Sacred: Space, Ritual, and Experience from Classical Greece to Byzantium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Wharton, Annabel Jane.  Selling Jerusalem:  Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Wilkinson, John. Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades. Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips, 2011.